penetrated a depth of only 16 ft. and
therefore did not reach the timbering. As found, this
structure—whether pier or causeway or slipway—was embedded
on its north side in bog-earth and on its south side in sand.
The bog-earth-—-or, rather, alluvium mixed with Roman
debris—has been found to continue northwards into Dolphin
Lane, and when the offices of the adjacent Phoenix Brewery were
built it is said that a log-canoe was discovered. Canon Puckle,
too, records the finding of mooring—rings. piles, groins,
etc., in this district.68 In spite of much
vagueness, it is sufficiently clear that in ancient times much
of the land in the vicinity of Dolphin Lane was under sea-water:
and it requires no great feat of imagination to suppose that the
timber framework was either that of an ancient quay flanking a
small harbour at this spot, or of a slipway descending into it.
Timber-quays f the Roman period, somewhat similarly constructed,
have been found on the banks of the Thames immediately above
London Bridge; 69 and the depth of the Dover
structure, combined with the occurrence of Roman debris
apparently in association with it, leaves little doubt as to its
(11) At the junction of Saxon Street and St.
Martin’s Hill (i.e., at the eastern end of the Folkestone
road), opposite the Red Cow Inn, a tufa wall, apparently only 1
ft. thick, was found during the laying of drain-pipes. Mr. Amos
notes that all the ground on the east side of the wall was
‘made,’ whereas that on the west side was natural. The
material is consistent with a Roman date, but Roman walls only 1
ft. wide are rare, and tufa was used freely at Dover at least as
late as the Norman period (St. Martin’s-le-Grand and Dover
(12) In Albany Place, on the west of the town, Mr.
Amos saw the entrance to a dugout, about half-way down the road
on the west side, made in 1918. Roman pottery, tile, pieces of
tufa, etc., were found from a depth of 2 ft. below the road to
the maximum depth of the cutting, 11 ft. On the western side,
this ‘ made ‘soil ‘ rested against a slope of clay,’
which may have been merely the side of a pit, but suggests the
possibility of a ditch running in a southerly or south-easterly
direction towards the edge of the cliff.
(ii) So much for the structural fragments on the
site of the medieval and modern town. Rather more is known of
the cemeteries. They arc indeed numerous enough to indicate
either a fairly large body of inhabitants or a long
inhabitation. They consist almost entirely of cremation burials.
(i) on the south-west of the Roman area, outside Adrian’s
Gate, ‘ on the edge of the cliff,’ a ‘ Roman burying
ground,’ with urns and a few coins, was touched upon in 1797
and again in 1804.70 (2) On the north-west two
places of burial are recorded. One on Priory Hill, in a field
behind Dover College, was opened in 1883, and contained burial
urns with burnt bones, Samian and coarser ware, one or two glass
vessels, and half a dozen bronze armlets. Four pottery stamps
are recorded : C.IN.T.VSS.A and OSIN
(?) on Samian saucers; IVI-OF on a
black saucer of imitation Samian type, probably not a genuine
stamp but a makeshift ; SAV—perhaps
part of Saturninus—on a mortarium.71
69 Roy. Com. on Hist. Mons.
(Eng.), Roman London, 132. Similar structures were found
in 1929 on the west side of Fish Street.
70 Lyon, Hist, of Dover, i,
71 Arch. Cant. xviii, 203
and plate; remains in Dover Museum. Urns were dug up at the
Priory Railway Station in 1861.