Aspects of Kentish Local History

Patch Grove Ware (PGW) Pottery & an Otford, Kent, Kiln Site - Forms & the N.W. Kent Distribution
by Christopher St John Breen, 4th Year Student, B.Sc. Archaeological Sciences May 1987                                   

Note: Christopher St John Breen sadly died in 1988 at the age of 45 years.  He had been researching the pottery of
North West Kent for many years. I can only apologise for the delay in making some of Chris's work available on this
website and hope that Chris's work will prove useful, even after all this time to other pottery researchers. Ted Connell


  1.1   Pottery of the Patch Grove Type
  1.2   Nomenclature
  1.3   P.G.W. Fabric
  1.4   P.G.W. Fabric Inclusions
  1.5   P.G.W. Recognition
  1.6   P.G.W. Terminology
         Fig 1   Excavations at Oldbury Hill, Ightham 1938
  1.7   P.G.W. history - what is in a name
         Fig  3   Patch Grove 1938 - diagram of excavations
                                                   and layers
         Fig 4   Typed copy of Dr Gordon Ward's notes
         Fig  5  Some material from the Oldbury Hill Fort 
         Fig  6  Six of the PATCH GROVE site sherds
  2.1   P.G.W. Schema
         Fig 7   Theoretical break-up scheme of vessels
  3     Forms / Dating - The Literature
  4     Frog Farm, Otford
         Fig   9  Otford Pits - Totals of sherds - P.G.W.
         Fig 10  Otford - Field scatters (ploughed out pits) 
                                  - sherds totals P.G.W

  5     Listing
  6     Note to Appendix 3 - 
  7     Analysis 
         Fig 12  
  8     Dating
  9     Industry  
10     Conclusions
        Fig 13   
        Preface to Appendix 1 - List of Forms
        Preface to Appendix 2 - List Sites
        Appendix 3  - Comparison of three sites
        Bibliography  Publications mentioned in text

Illustrations in separate webpage
Fig 2   Pplan on the front of  Twitton Notebook
Fig 8  Sketch plan - Twitton & Frog Farm Area
Fig 11 Neutron activation analysis of  P.G.W.
Appendix  2  Section 2.1.2   Distribution of
                        P.G.W. in Dartford Town


   "Patch Grove ware was thus named by Ward Perkins in a 1939 Report and has since been employed in the literature. The ware has been examined at the macro level to test whether or not a homogeneous fabric exists. Sherds from two hundred sites in N.W. Kent were examined. A record of the sherd count, vessel form extent and intra and inter site differences has been noted. The research brought to light the existence of a hitherto unsuspected kiln site. The ware's dating and its role as a traded ware in the 1c to 3c AD in N.W. Kent is briefly discussed".

   "The paucity of information concerning the vessel form extent of Patch Grove ware (Ward Perkins, 1939) has led to the view that the ware is found in the guise of large jars only. Moreover, the date for these jars is given as 1c and 2c AD. However, the evidence of recent research, particularly on newly excavated and unpublished material conflicts with this view. Evidence for an innovatory local ware industry has emerged spanning the 1c - 3c AD, producing a wide range of forms. These discoveries are of obvious local importance but also reflect a general trend in localised hand-made coarse ware production that has yet to be studied in detail in other parts of the province. This material, represented by a range of forms, is here designated PATCH GROVE WARE (PGW) and an analysis of its distribution and main characteristics forms the main content of this paper. Evidence is also presented as to the first discovery of a 'kiln site* for this ware.
   Note: Frog Farm, Otford, Kent. Some areas of this farm from the text refer to Twitton or Wickham. Farm names and some field names change in time.

1.1    After excluding vessel types such as amphorae, tazza and fine wares such as Terra Nigra, Samian Ware and Colour-Coated Wares, only one Coarse Ware - named PATCH GROVE Ware (Ward Perkins, 1939, P.178-9, 1944) is constantly listed in N. Kent archaeological reports. (In this paper the abbreviation P.G.W. is used).

1.1.1   The basic problem is clear from all the literature. P.G.W. is described as such and/or as a type and/or as an allied ware as well. It is important therefore to test whether or not a P.G.W. homogeneous fabric does exist as archaeological workers repeatedly cite an orange coloured surface type. Should this prove to exist, then it may point to one or more places in N.W. Kent as being kiln sites. The existence of such a sub-regional industry, if proved, can help to expand knowledge in the area of pottery supply in N.W. Kent in the Romano-British period.

1.1.2   The approach adopted in this research was to examine in the hand sherds from Romano-British find spots in
           N.W. Kent and its borders, aided by inspection using a X10 mag. hand lense. The aims were:-
      To research the vessel form extent.
      To elucidate the distribution of P.G.W. in N.W. Kent.
      To indicate the dating of P.G.W.
      To consider briefly P.G.W.'s role within the framework of pottery supply in N.W. Kent.

1.2    Nomenclature
        The name of this ware was coined by Ward Perkins, it being no more than the place name of a "site" by 

1.2.1   The name since has been contracted on occasion to PATCHGROVE WARE by a number of authors e.g.
           C.M. GREEN, P.33 (PALMER 1984).

1.2.2   Further, the name has also been extended, on occasions, to cover other wares similar to P.G.W., 
          e.g. 'PATCHGROVE' fabric - Green P.39/Palmer 1984.
          Class 11M - includes the original 'PATCH GROVE' storage jar form (Ward Perkins 1944-, Fig.9) - 
Marsh/Tyers 1978, P.564).
           Group B - 'PATCH GROVE AND RELATED WARES' - G. Clewley (Philp, 1963, P.60-1). 

The conclusion is disturbing. A named ware has had its original name used in various ways to also include other similar wares.

1.3      P.G.W. fabric
1.3.1   The first writer to place the fabric under a correct title "HAND-MADE GROG-TEMPERED POTTERY 
           TYPES"  was Green 1980, P.62 in Lamas No. 4.

1.3.2    As a type it was included in the study of grog-tempered wares of South Eastern England (Thompson, 1982). 
           This highlights another fundamental problem. Is there a P.G.W. fabric amongst a "sea" of grog-ware fabrics?

1.4      P.G.W. fabric inclusions
1.4.1   Reports have mentioned the minor presence of :-
           shell (including fossil) - Marsh/Tyers 1978 Green, 1980, 1984
           sand - Marsh/Tyers, 1978
           burnt organics - Green, 1980
           ? mudstone - Green, 1984
           charcoal - Pollard, I982b,    Green, 1984
           mica - Green, 1980
           quartz - Green 1984
           besides the major inclusions of grog.
           This list adds to the uncertainty of a P.G.W. homogeneous fabric being in existence, (cf 1.3.2).

1.5      P.G.W. recognition
1.5.1   Within the scope of this paper, published references to P.G.W. (cf 1.1) without an 'in hand' inspection a
           moot point in terms of provenance value.

1.5.2   What is clear is that archaeologists have followed Ward Perkins and isolated an easily recognisable fabric in
           its most common guise -an orange surfaced soapy ware in the form of a large jar with an horizontal row of jab
           decor high on the shoulder - (Fig 1).

1.5.3   An extensive literature search undertaken with 'in hand' examination revealed the existence of sufficiently
        sized rim/wall sherds and complete vessels, some of which may be attributed to styles current in the 2c-3c AD.

1.5.4   In the same period Ward Perkins (Fig. 1), jars have also been described as colour-surfaced black, brown and
           grey, found alongside the orange-surfaced type.

1.6       P.G.W. terminology

1.6.1    To describe the gross and minor morphological details of the Ward. Perkins jar (Fig. 1) as published, would
            serve no  point. A short list emphasises some of the approaches taken over the last five decades:-
            Iron Age A finger-tip decoration 
            finger-tip decoration 
            finger-print decoration
            finger pressed decoration
            bases without rims
            club rims
            storage pots/jars/containers
            cooking pots/jars/containers
            cinerary urns/jets.

1.6.2   Section 2 outlines, a proposed scheme for description based, on the examination of circa 10,000 sherds.

Fig 1   Excavations at Oldbury Hill, Ightham 1938

1.7      P.G.W. history - what is in a name

1.7.1   "PATTS GROVE" - Court Rolls of Ightham 1624 - (Arch. Cant. 1937, P.78).
   PATCH GROVE - A wooded area in the parish of Ightham, Kent. In a field a swimming pool was constructed for the landowner Mr Hooker at the turn of this century. The construction work brought to light masses of pottery and a record of burnt layers.
    Excavations in the mid-twenties at Otford the Progress Roman Villa - brought to light a 1c AD kiln, firing flagons, bowls and other forms (incorrectly dated 3c AD - Pollard, 1982b), correctly dated 1c - Swan, 1984. The products of this kiln were in a slipped sandy fabric. Two P.G.W. rims from this site were illustrated by Ward Perkins (Fig. 1) his No. 1 and 2 stored in Dartford Borough Museum.
   The excavator failed to mention exactly where this villa was (Pearce 1927, 1930). This problem has been resolved (Mynott, 1971). A further report on this villa was issued (Sevenoaks, 1955).
   Assisting Mr Pearce had been Dr G. Ward and Mr Godwin, who themselves undertook excavations at Frog Farm, Otford in 1929 and 1930. Next to Frog Farm, in the grounds of the isolation hospital came reports of pottery (Arch. Cant. 1929) including & mention of "layers of pottery and charcoal".
   An Arch. Cant. 1930 report by Mr. F. Godwin provided further Frog Farm, Wickham Field and Hospital Field finds made by him, Dr Gordon Ward and Mr M. Hoverden. Mentioned were large quantities of debris and burnt material found on the surface or close below ground level. Rough pavements of flints occurred in numerous places, one to one-and-a-half feet below the surface.

FIG. 3

PATCH GROVE 1938                SITE PG

Finds marked:   P.G.   40/1
                          P.G.   40/2   (1)
                          P.G.   40/2   (2)
                          P.G.   40/3   (1)
                          P.G.   40/3   (2)
                          P.G.   40/3   (3)
                          P.G.    40/4

Patch Grove ware Itself from grids 1 to 4:
                          14 rims - out -curved
                          50 odd body sherds and base.

P.G. 40/2   (1) - flanged rim bowl.
P.G. 40/2   (1) - foot-ring base - open form - Oxford red colour-coated ware. 
P.G. 40/2   (2) - bead rim bowl/dish - round rim - plain - fine sandy grey.
P.G. 40/2   (2) - flanged rim bowl - Dorset B.B.1 
P.G. 40/3   (1) - mortarium - Young's M.18 Oxford, Fig. 21 Bar 43, 1977.
                      - Upchurch poppy - head beaker
                      - Samian ware - Dr. 15/31 and Dr. 33
                      - Trier colour-coated ware - folded wall beaker
                      - three bead rim bowl/dish - all three round rim, two plain - Higham Marsh, one verticals -
                           Cooling type.
P.G. 40/3   (2) - bead rim bowl/dish - angular rim - acute lattice. 
P.G. 40/3   (3) - Cologne - cornice rim - rough cast colour-coated' beaker. 
P.G. 40/3   (3) - "Hoo" flagon - two different foot-ring bases

   Dr. Gordon Ward's Notebook survives and the trial holes and trenches are shown in (Fig. 2). Mr John Pyke kindly drew the writer's attention to the existence or this Notebook and Dr. Gordon Ward's plan.
   Dr Gordon Ward, F. Godwin and M. Hoverden were amongst those who assisted Ward Perkins at the Oldbury Hill Port excavations in 1938 and his knowledge probably prompted Ward Perkins to test dig at Hooker's swimming pool field in PATCH GROVE.
   Ward Perkins Site Notebook survives, with the finds, in Maidstone Museum. His test dig campaign was four boxes (by the swimming pool) (Fig. 3 and two further sets of boxes marked PG 42 and 43 series (elsewhere in the swimming pool field). The other wares in each layer of each PG 40 box, found with orange surface coloured P.G.W. date from c. 70 AD to c. 25O AD. This situation was no different for the box 42/43 layer series.
   The Eldridge finds from the St. Mary Cray and Orpington area - find spots noted in pencil with dates on the sherds - were donated to the Orpington Museum. (Fig. I. No. 3 and 4 were traced).
   Ward Perkins dating for P.G.W. as immediate pre/immediate post Claudian Conquest to the end of the first century AD on this site's intra-specific sequence is not valid. In fact there is no valid secure dating by association for P.G.W. at PATCH GROVE and no evidence whatsoever that PATCH GROVE was a P.G.W. kiln site. The finds suggest a ?Romano-British farmstead still awaiting discovery in the immediate area.

Fig 4   Typed copy of Dr Gordon Ward's notes

Specimens from PATCH GROVE area selected to show characteristics of the PATCH GROVE TYPE of pottery. The site by Patch Grove is a dump of wasters and may not accurately represent the quality to be met elsewhere.

A.   The PASTE shoes grey mottling on lighter grey. It is VERY soft and often contains white specks.

B.   The PASTE has a rough fracture and often contains flint, iron concentrations etc.

C.   The SLIP is normally orange red and has been applied to the paste before firing. It covers inside, outside,
         and base.

D.   Brush marks show one of the ways in which the SLIP was applied. It is very soft.

E.   The SLIP when under-fired has a soapy feel and dirty grey colour.

F.   RIMS are very variable but mostly are on section, club or quarter circle in shape.

G.   BASES are usually flat.

H.   The visual DECORATION consists of rows of horizontal stab marks made with a stick, on the shoulder and
          body only.

J.   DECORATION with knife stabs and cuts occurs but not on the rim.

K.   DECORATION with waves etc is exceptional and may involve the body or the slip only.

                                                                                            Research by Dr Gordon Ward F.S.A.

Fig 5   Ward Perkins excavated material from the Oldbury Hill Fort. Some are listed below.

Context; C.31 (16)
"Prom upper revetment not really stratified"

Context; C.3O/1
"Trial trench behind rampart near North Gate"

Context; C.31 (3)
"In glacis stone work"

0 38  c
"PP 30ft North Gate"
2/3c AD - sandy grey ware base.
Late 1c/3c AD - body sherd - Upchurch ware.
? date - Samian Dr. 30.

Flanged rim bowl - Alice Holt/ Farnham ware.

2/3c AD - sandy grey ware body sherd 
? date - burnt base - Samian Dr. 18/31R.

1 body sherd - Samian ware
2 rims and 4 body sherds - poppy-head beaker
    - Upchurch fabric.
1 rim - plain out-curved - Jar - P.G.W.

The rim sherd in Context O 38 c was the only  P.G.W. noted in the collection from the Oldbury Hill Fort.

Fig 6   Six of the PATCH GROVE site P.G.W. sherds not mentioned in either the 1939 or 1944.

Bead rim jar                                                       -  context P.G. 42 (1)
Large narrow mouth jar                                     -  context P.G. 42 (2)
Plain body sherd - cut down to form a lid         -  context A
Body sherd - incised with horizontal design      -  context P.G. 42/1 (4
Lid-seated rim Jar - rim slipped black               -  context P.G. 40/3 (2)
Two rib handle                                                   -  context P.G. 43/4 (2

1.7.1 (cont'd)
   Dr. Gordon Ward however, saw PATCH GROVE as the kiln site and took ten of Ward Perkins'  P.G.W. sherds and marked them in white and black ink for a display (long ago withdrawn) at Maidstone Museum (Fig 4). He remained convinced of this attribution (Sevenoaks, privately printed P.92-6) and at least one archaeologist followed this school of thought (Parsons, 1966).
   Chemically this A - K marking by Dr. Gordon Ward has severely contaminated approximately 20% of all the Ward Perkins excavated P.G.W.
   Ward Perkins excavated material from the Oldbury Hill Fort contains much Romano British fabrics ranging from the first to the fourth century AD which throws revealing light on his mention of two mortaria being found (1944). Some of this material is listed in (Fig. 5).

1.7.2   Ward Perkins (1939, 1944) cited A.W.G. Lowther for the Surrey distribution. The significance of this is that the reported Surrey find spots lie on the line of the Pilgrims Way, the road adjacent to Frog Farm, Otford and a barn (the Charne Site, Meates, 1954) opposite Frog Farm.

1.7.3   Six of the PATCH GROVE site P.G.W. sherds not mentioned nor illustrated in either the 1939 or 1944 reports are of interest. (Fig. 6).

1.7.4   Since the ware found at PATCH GROVE was too fragmentary for illustration, four rims from other N.W. Kent sites were used. The omission of the other vessel forms was unfortunate and has had lasting effect.

1.7.5   The P.G.W. at PATCH GROVE, Oldbury Hill Fort and the four rims (1 - 4 in Fig. 1) have ail been examined and all are homogeneous. Had Dr. Gordon Ward concentrated on Frog Farm, this could have been the ware's nomenclature, but posterity has proved otherwise.

2.     P.G.W. SCHEMA

2.1   In good light at the sorting table P.G.W. was isolated and quantified by sherd type count. The basic count 
achieved per  type was:-

Fabric 1 - orange surfaced coloured
               rim/wall - plain
               rim/wall - jab
               rims - reserved black slipped area
               bases - flat
               body sherds - plain
               body sherds - incised decors
               body sherds - cut - to form lids/covers
               body sherds - with luted on knobs
               bases - not flat
               rubbers - ? tools

Fabric 1A - black, brown, grey surfaced coloured Repeat as Fabric 1.

2.2.1   In quantitative terms P.G.W. Fabric 1 always exceeds P.G.W. Fabric 1A.

2.2.2   In vessel size terms P.G.W. Fabric 1 always exceeds P.G.W. Fabric 1A in height and girth.

2.2.3   In general terms in the period circa 70-120 AD the co-occurrence of Fabric 1 and Fabric 1A alters to the extent that post 120 AD Fabric 1A virtually disappears. Fabric 1A reappears towards the end of the 2c especially in the guise of the flanged rim bowl.

2.3.      Fabric - a handmade, soapy feel, grog ware. Bluish-grey core, mottled with black to dark grey irregular sized grog. A pencil thin margin and orange surfaces rough fracture at a fresh break.

2.3.1    Colour - firing conditions, not understood, aimed to achieve and maintain a constant result, that of an orange surfaced product. Why this was not maintained for Fabric 1A is also not understood at present*

2.3.2    Fabric source - presumed to be gault grey, tempered with re-cycled waste.

2.3.3    No other tempering was deliberately employed. Repeated checks reveal that flint, vegetable matter, shell, fossil shell, sand and (mica never seen) will occasionally occur, often at the numerical level of one or two grains only.

2.3.4    Slipping and wheel-throwing were never employed.

2.3.5    Decoration on some closed forms was confined to executing horizontal rows by Jabbing with a "tool". All other techniques are uncommon.

2.3.6    Bases are flat, exceptional types however are known.

2.3.7   On a inter-site basis, only one site was recognised to contain wasters, to have P.G.W. at a factor of 10 to 100 more than any other site, a form series not only spanning but exceeding all the other sites combined. The site was Frog Farm, Otford, Kent.

2.3.8    Fig. 7
The theoretical break-up schema of the most common P.G.W. form - HOS = a sherd from High On the Shoulder

HOS = plain 
HOS = jab/stab
Rim/wall - above dotted line "capture" plain rim
   out-curved jar - plain Form 1 Jab Form 2.
Rims - above dashed line 'capture' plain rim
   out-curved jars - Form 1 or 2.
Body sherds - between dotted and dashed line
   'capture' plain rim out-curved jar - plain 
   Form 1 Jab Form 2.

Fig 7

3.1    In just under a decade (Ward Perkins 1939, 1944) the dating and form extent of P.G.W. was rapidly revised. At Lullingstone (Meates, 1950, 1952) and at Joydens Wood (Caiger/Tester, 1954) two further Jar forms were reported (see Appendix 1) and P.G.W. reported in secure Antonine/late 2c context. Further, Meates reported the Ward Perkins type (Fig. 1) in a 3c well. Whether this third century attribution is correct can only be gauged when the Lullingstone Vol. II appears (Meates, Vol. II, ?July, 198?). 

3.1.1                         Ward Perkins                       Meates                                      Tester/Caiger
                                Patchgrove                           Lullingstone                                Joydens Wood 
Fig.17 1-4 
Jar                           Otford                                   Vol. II                                         Fig-3, 2-4
                               St. Mary Cray/ 
                               Orpington area                       Various

Jar - large                 Fig.6 - 1.7.3                              ?                                            Fig.3, No. 5 
narrow mouth            Patchgrove - sherd context
                                   PG.42/1 (4)

Jar                           Not P.G.W.                            Various                                    Fig.3 No.6 & 7 
                               No.10 Fig.15 Patchgrove

3.1.2    In using Birchall 1965, B. Cunliffe's Fig. A.25 No. 6 and Fig. A.26 No. 2 (Cunliffe, 1975) a bowl/Jar Aylesford-Swarling style shows that the earliest Jar form is Joydens Wood Fig.3 No. 6 & 7 appearing circa 65.AD in Fabric 1 in N.W. Kent. Ward Perkins Fig.17 1-4 are 2c forms, characterised by the horizontal row of jabbing invariably in fringing into or just on the final row of cordons at the shoulder.

3.1.3    Other forms in P.G.W. appeared in the 1960's and 1970's e.g.
Rye Lane, Otford (Pyke, 1974) - incipient flanged rim bowl (Fig.4 No. 6 described as a jar). 
Cray Valley - (Ward Perkins 1-4) with acute lattice incised decor (Parsons, 1966).
A further example of the large narrow mouth jar was illustrated in the Greenhithe Report (Detsicas, 1966) and several from the Darent Valley area (Philp, 1973).

3.2       Unpublished
An extensive search through stores held in museums and by groups in N.W. Kent brought to light lids, bowls, jars and a ?loom-weight.

4.1       Excavations and collecting field surface finds produced a huge amount of finds (Young, May and November 1966) especially from two areas (Fig. 8).
   Fifty-seven pits were cleared - described as rubbish pits. The P.G.W. percentage of each pit fill varies between fifty-five to a hundred per cent in an ash matrix. This is the only site to have produced wasters and a selection of forms at 1:1 scale is given in (Appendix  1). Several thousand more P.G.W. sherds including wasters were collected from the ploughed soil surface.
   This evidence points to the fact that the site was a P.G.W. kiln field - a full report is to be published elsewhere (John Pyke etc. forthcoming). No other site in N.W. Kent has yielded a waster nor can approach numerically the sherd count or form series or range of "uncommon" decor styles. Material thought to be daub, some not unlike P.G.W., is now considered to be fragments of kiln walls. Over twenty sherds are recorded with smooth edges and are considered to be potters tools used to execute the horizontal burnishing. One tool has a cut triangle in relief and may have been used to execute the horizontal Jab row.

4.2      In brief, a ditch and bank runs from the Pilgrims Way (A) towards the Twitton Brook. This late Iron Age ditch and bank turns at (B) and then runs down slope to turn in and disappear at (X). At Point (D) a graveyard was discovered (mainly P.G.W. jars used to contain the cremated remains).
This is the largest group of P.G.W. "cinerary urns" known in Kent. Most likely the local potters graveyard. At point (D) a mausoleum was discovered and its full plan recorded. At point (F), now under a housing development, was a barn (Meates, 1954).

Fig 9


See Fig. 8 - Area B
Plain body chords - 2392 includes wasters
Bases - flat   
Body sherds - incised acute lattice
Rims - plain - out-curved
Rims - plain - out-curved black slip
Rims - bead rim jars
Rims - individual forms -
           not Form 1 or 2 or 17/17A 
Body sherds - "non-standard" decors
Body sherds - from high on shoulder HOS
           Form I - plain 
Body sherds - from high on shoulder HOS
           Form II - jab decor
Body sherds - jab - mid-girth area of Form II

-  2392  includes wasters
-      19  includes wasters
-    179  includes wasters
-      48  includes wasters  

-    307  includes wasters
-        6  includes wasters
-    117  includes wasters

-     47  includes wasters
-     32  includes wasters

-    198  includes wasters

-     79  includes wasters
-       8  includes wasters

Fig 10


See Fig  8 - Area C.
Plain body sherds
Bases - flat 
Body sherds - incised acute lattice
Rims - plain - out-curved
Rims - plain - out-curved black slip
Rims - bead rim jars
Rims - individual forms - not  form 1 or 2 or 17/17A  
Body sherds - "non-standard" decors
 Body sherds - from high on shoulder form I - plain
Body sherds - from high on shoulder form II - jab decor 
Body sherds - mld girth .area of form II

* includes flagon rim: - sherd No: W.1121 flagon - 3 rib handle: W.4-21

- 1,235
 -     17
-      61
-      28
-    159
-        9
-      31
-      25*
-      33
-      83 
-      40 
-        7 

-    3 wasters

-    1 waster
-    1 waster
-    1 waster

 -   2 wasters

-    1 waster
-    2 wasters
-    1 waster

4.3    At point (B) in heavy woodland fifty-seven pits were cleared (Fig. 9). At point (C), the ploughed part of the kiln field, surface finds were collected (Fig, 10). At the point (?G) on place name evidence - TILE FIELD - again under an housing estate, may prove in the future to be the area of the Romano-British dwelling(s).
   Point (C) today still shows dark circles all over the surface. Such ploughed-out pits showed clearly in a 1958 aerial photograph (personal information - John Pyke).
   The area adjoining Lampe Field is the same ground investigated by Dr. Gordon Ward et al in the 1920s and 1930's.
   Banking Mead field contains two earth works, both hitherto unrecorded. The first is a bank (now spread by plough action) running from the Pilgrims Way on the 200m contour line parallel with the River Darent. The other is a rectangular enclosure with a single entrance facing the River Darent.
   The flint pavements noted by Dr. Gordon Ward and team may represent floors or minor structures, the precise nature and dating of which is not presently known.
   It is striking that the kiln field was confined to a corner of what appears to be a mixed economic unit embracing farming, stock-holding and pottery production. It is not surprising, therefore, that this site's main product - the Ward Perkins 1 and 2 type Jar - should have reached the Progress Villa on the opposite bank - "and of some large yellowish stone vessels with two or more bands of stick made marks for ornament" (Pearce, 1927, P.154).

4.4     Frog Farm's position for pottery production was ideal. Ample supplies of gault clay, wood and water are in the immediate area. Its place for communication was ideal, products being moved up or down the Pilgrims Way, the River Darent and minor roads/tracks running up or down the Darent Valley.

5.      LISTING
5.1    Over one hundred and thirty-five find spots for P.G.W. Fabric 1 have been noted. These are arranged in linear blocks for N.W. Kent (Appendix 2).

6. Note to Appendix. 3 provides a comparison with Frog Farm's sherd count with two Cray and Darent Valley sites. Poverest Road had twelve of the form series, the highest total known. Dartford was chosen since this villa farmstead was built post AD 140 and Form I (Appendix I) is totally absent.

7.1   Carbon as a filler for P.G.W. has been suggested (Pollard, 19S2b). A fellow member of the D.D.A.G. Mr Ian Gerrard took three P.G.W. sherds from Ash Villa One site and mechanically crushed them. He reported as follows:-
       Kiln set at 24 hrs. at 1000 C. 
       new crucible one       -    carbon
       new crucible two       -    crushed P.G.W. sherd                - 31
       new crucible three     -    hand picked black "grog" fraction - 32
       new crucible four       -    hand picked grey "grog" fraction   - 33

   Results:- After being let to cool, crucible one had a slight black stain - the carbon had evaporated. Crucibles two to four contained a homogeneous bright red brick dust.
   Carbon, as a deliberately chosen filler, would call for a regular supply - an added complication to the process of making pots. Its presence as a filler has never been noted (Satterwaite, 1994-). A void in the paste, due to occasional burnt out organics, Would not be surprising for a whole range of ceramic material from the Bronze Age onwards.

7.2    At the point (X) in Farther Marsh field, Frog Farm, Otford, Kent a P.G.W. plain body sherd was obtained in January, 1987. It was slightly abraded (weathering, ploughing episodes) and came from a recently fertilized field surface (blood, fish and bone).

Fig 12


A.  Rodwell - "London and Essex stamped ware".
B.  Mucking graffito jars
C. "Rustic" grey wars jars
D.  Lead glazed wares

E.  Mica dusted wares
F.  Flavian "ring and dot" beakers
G.  Lyon - colour-coated ware
H.  "Egg shell" ware



















NOTE: At each of these sites P.G.W. Fabric 1, and in come cases also 1A has been found in either the same context or sealed layer. No evidence has been found for P.G.W. being in a Claudian or Nero era context. This confirmed, it is suggested, an observer that P.G.W. had never been noted in a secure Claudian context (Pollard 1982b).

   From the 1978/79 Dartford Villa (D.D.A.G. 1986) excavations a P.G.W, base sherd, with a unique decor scheme (not unlike a modem quiche dish) was removed and a sample taken.
   Both samples had been washed in tap water and dried. Both were Irradiated for a neutron activation analysis at North East London Polytechnic in March, 1987 (Fig. 11).
   The presence of manganese in the Dartford sample may be due to sampling error as this is a trace element in gault clay. Allowing for the fact that this sampling is not typical, that the neutron activation analysis neutron flux was low, this is a striking match.
   P.G.W. has been found on twenty-eight sites in the Dartford area (cf Appendix 2 - 2.1 - Dartford Block).

8.      DATING
8.1    The association of P.G.W. Fabric 1 in layers on a number of N.W. Kent sites for the period circa 65 - 100 AD with a number of known forms and fabrics is striking (Fig. 12). Pollard's suggestion that P.G.W. achieved a recognisable form in the later 1c AD (Pollard, 1982a) is considered here correct in the precise sense of an orange surfaced product.

8.2    The presence of everted rim jars, Jars bearing reserved zone acute lattice decor (a B.B.2 mimic) and flanged rim bowls and dishes, points to production at Frog Farm into the first quarter of the 3c.

8.3    This is not the place to discuss in detail the dating evidence of each open and closed form. However, (Appendix 3) offers an insight of Form 2 reaching Cray end Darent Valley sites whereas the kiln site has a low Form 2 body sherd count compared to Form 1.

9.      Industry
9.1    As a ware, P.G.W. arose out of a Southern England, pre-conquest Belgic grog ware tradition. Fabric 1 appears circa 60 AD and fell from the record in the troubled times of the early third century.

9.2    The main output (44 pits out of 57) was Form 2.

9.3    This form monopolised the market in N.W. Kent in the supply of a large storage Jar. For the period 60 - 140 it had only one rival, marketed from the Thames-side industry. This was the shell-tempered storage jar (Form 11K Marsh/Tyers, 1978) (Fig. 13). This has bean noted in the course of this research on thirty-five N.W. Kent sites. It was first illustrated in a report alongside P.G.W, at Joydens Wood (Caiger/Tester, 1954).

9.4    The Frog Farm potters also engaged in a volume production of a second closed form - the bead rim jar - in the later part of 1c/early 2c. It would seem that it was traded only a few miles from the site. All other forms were not volume produced and the uncommon decors may well reflect kiln site experiments.

10.1   Much of what has been said has necessarily been one of opinion. The prime aim of the research has been achieved - that there is a homogeneous fabric - that the fabric appears confined to N.W. Kent in the main and embraced a long term output of an open and closed form series. The recognition that Frog Farm is the kiln site was an unexpected result in the face of the fact that a grog ware producer - by recycling waste - would leave virtually no trace of pottery activity.

10.2    This work is a ground work survey, opening up to a marked degree the extent of P.G.W.'s distribution. Most of the sherds seen in the hand were derived from antiquarian collections, stray field surface assemblages and amateur rescue excavations. The value of these finds would have been severely limited had not the distinctive nature of the P.G.W. fabric been so evident. Finds from the bulk of these find spots have never been published, even at the interim report level.
   This has been a major drawback in that it has cast doubt on the size and relative importance of P.G.W. in its role of supply to the N.W. Kent market.

Fig 13

A.   Higham Marsh shell - Breen/Lewis - Higham Marsh 1975/1977 type collection - 70+ kilos (unpublished}
B.   Form 11M - Marsh/Tyrers, 1976
C.   North Kent shelly ware - D.U.A. code 1982
D.   Fabric N.4/18 - Monaghan, 1986.

Greenhithe, Stone Castle Quarry
Joydens Wood
Dartford, Tenter's Field Villa
Wilmington Villa
Maxim Road Villa, Crayford
Darenth Villa
Farningham Frank's Hall
Horton Kirby
Shoreham, Preston Farm
Kemsing, Springhead Villa
Ash Villa I and II
Eastwood Farm, Fawkham
St Pauls Cray
Foots Cray
Greenwich Park
Billingsgate Lorry Park
Longreach, Dartford

10.3    Future progress on the distribution of the ware rests on the future publications of excavations, both major such as Springhead and Rochester, and minor such as the Dartford four acre site (Philp, 1972), the Keston Warbank site complex (Philp) and the Gravesend Town Centre site (Philp). Unfortunately non-publication has thus far been the general rule in N. Kent pottery research (Monaghan, 1986).

10.4    Considerable scope exists to add in blank areas of the distribution, to increase the form parallels and extend the fore series and refine the dating. 

10.5    Modern developments pose a considerable threat in that the Poverest Road site is currently threatened with building schemes. Area (B) Fig. 8 of the Frog Farm site has been sold off as recreation plots and the Springhead complex remains under the plough.

10.6    A considered sampling policy and analytical programme to understand the nature of P.G.W.'s fabric is needed as is a modern open plan excavation at Frog Farm in an attempt to deduce the type of kiln technology.

It is hoped that future researchers may find this study of some help in their work and it remains for me to thank all those contributors in Kent's museums and groups who gave their help, in particular Mr John Pyke of the Otford Group for allowing the use of copies of his 1:1 scale master drawings of some of the Frog Farm pits material and for other kindnesses.
                                                                                                                        C. St. J.  Breen 1997

Preface to Appendix 1   P.G.W. Forms

Bases of closed forms; Drawings one and two illustrate the types encountered at Frog Farm.
   Jar base A is the most common encountered on sites in North West Kent.
   Jar base C is common in the same area, especially in the second century.
   Jar base E a reserved burnished zone can occur on A or B.
   Type 24 strainer bases have been noted on a number of sites and there is only one example of a pre-fired base
      at Frog Farm.  All others had the holes drilled post-fired.
   The incipient pedestal base is a later first century variant and the fully developed pedestal base is represented by
      one example at Frog Farm. 

Form 1               -  Otford Pits 44 wasters 4 Pits
                            Otford field scatter - yes, includes wasters 
                            Fabric 1   -  Circa 65AD 125-140 
                            Fabric 1A -  ?Pre 65 AD - 100 Form 1 was never jab decorated.
                            In later 1A early 2C the form appears also with acute lattice, intersecting arc and burnished
                               reserved cone decors. 

Form 2               -  Large storage Jar with plain out-curved rim.
                            Jab decor on shoulder, sometimes on mid-girth,
                            sometimes as well in the area between the mid-girth point and the base,
                            Otford Pits 44 wasters Pits 4
                            Otford field scatter - yes - includes wasters. 
                            Fabric 1   -  Circa 65AD - 225. 
                            Fabric 1A -  ?Pre-65 AD - 100-120. 

Form 3               -  Large narrow mouth jar with plain out-curved rim.
                            neck area may or may not be cordoned
                            Otford Pits 3 waster Pit 1
                            field scatter - yes - including waster. 
                            Fabric I -  Circa 100 - 225 AD. 
                            Fabric 1A -  Otford only.

Form 4               -   Large bead rim jar with single Jab row.
                             Otford Pits 5 Field scatter - yes.
                             Fabric 1 and 1A  -   AD 65 - 100.

Form 5               -   Small rimless jar
                             Otford Pits - yes Field scatter - no
                             Fabric 1 -   Later first century

Form 6                -   Flagon. Otford Pits 2 Field scatter 1.
                              Noted at Patch Grove (handle)
                              Orpington Poverest Road (rim)
                              Fabric 1 -  Circa AD100 - 150

Form 7                 -  Large plain rim (upright) jar.
                              Otford Pits 1, 
                              Fabric 1 - Circa 65 - 100 AD.

Form 8                 -  Large plain rim jar (upright rim) with an angular neck area. 
                              Otford Pits 1 
                              Fabric 1 - Circa AD 65 - 100.
Form 9                 -  Large bead rim (undercut) rimmed jar, black slip on rim. 
                              Otford Pits 1 
                              Fabric 1 - 2C AD

Form 10               -  Large storage jar with plain rim. The upper part of the rim is slightly out-turned.
                                  No jab decor. 
                              Otford Pits 1 
                              Fabric 1 - 2C AD.

Form 11                -  Large storage jar with three-quarter round bead rim and short neck. 
                               Otford Pits 1
                               Fabric 1 - 2C AD.

Form 12                -  Upright plain rim jar, single groove below; slight S shaped shoulder. 
                               Otford Pits 1 
                               Fabric 1A  - 65 - 100 AD

Form 13                -  Bead rim jar upper cordons, lower single groove.
                               Otford Pits 4   Field scatter - yes 
                               Fabrics 1 and 1A  - circa 65 - 125 AD.

Form 14                -  Bead rim jar upper cordons. 
                               Otford Pits 7   Field scatter - yes. 
                               Fabric 1 and 1A - circa 65 - 125 AD.

Form 15                -  Bead rim jar, multiple upper, shallow cordons.
                               Otford Pits 3.   Field scatter - yes.
                               Fabric 1 and 1A - Circa 65 - 100 AD.

Form 16                -  Not illustrated. A hybrid of Form 1 and 2. Over the jab row are luted-on bosses.
                               Otford Pits 3.   Field scatter - yes.
                               Fabric 1 and 1A. - 1C AD.

Form 17                -  Bead rim jar with a lid-seated recess
Form 17A              -  Bead rim jar with no recess.
                               Otford Pits 17 Wasters Pits 2 Field scatter - yes
                               Fabric 1 and 1A - Circa 65 - 125 AD.

Form 18                -  Not to scale, everted rim jars. 
                               Otford Pits 5 Field scatter - yes
                               Fabric 1 and 1A - mainly 2C AD.

Form 19                 -  Massive storage jar, heavy rolled rim. No 111

Form 20                 -  Carinated single cordon jar. No illustration

Form 21                 -  Flask or bottle. No illustration.

Form 22                -  Bead (round) end to out-curved rim. Large jars possible variant to Form 1 or 2.

Form 23                -  Barrel body plain upright rim jar, triple single jab rows on body.

Form 24                -  Large jars, decorated on the body with a raised welt, the welt itself jab decorated with a
                               Otford Pits - yes field scatter - yes. 
                               Fabric 1 - mainly early to nid-2C AD

Forms 25 - 39        -  Are reserved, for a drawing programme of the non-standard body decors.

Open Forms 
Form 40                -  Loom weight, not illustrated, one example.

Form 41                -  Lid-seated bead rim bowls. 
                               Otford pits and field scatter - yes. 
                               Fabric 1 and 1A - later 1C AD.

Form 42                -  Lids/covers, some pierced, some with hollow grip. Not to scale. 
                               Fabric 1 and 1A -  Circa 65 - 225 AD. 

Form 43                -  Plain rim bowls and dishes, not to scale. 
                               Fabric 1 and 1A - later 1C - 225AD.

Form 44                -  Flange rim bowl, one example known.
                               Fabric 1A from Darenth Bowen's Pit - DBM.

Form 45                -  Possible Fabric 1A Gallo-Belgic platter at Farningham, Calfstock Lane 
                                  (Philp 1973 No. 311 Fig 34)

Form 46                -  Bead rim bowl or dish, one example known in Fabric 1 from Farningham Manor House
                                  site 1948 DBM Box 175.  Probably post 120 AD.

Form 47                -  Flanged rim bowl or dish. 
                               Otford pits - yes field scatter - yes. 
                               Date circa 180 - 225 AD in mainly Fabric 1A. Noted at Ash, Wilmington, Farningham,
                                  Kemsing and Orpington

Form 48                -  Spindle whorls. Otford pits - yes field scatter yes. 
                               Cut from body sherds, including jab decorated area, noted on a number of sites. 

Form 49                -  Lids and covers, cut from body sherds. 
                               Otford pits 10 field scatter - yes. 
                               Noted at Orpington Poverest Road and Patch Grove. 

Note: graffiti are known from four N.W. Kent sites on mainly Fabric 1 and these and Forms 44-49 are still in the drawing proof stage.


Museums open and close, groups come and go, therefore the Appendix attempts to give an up-to-date note or where the finds are presently located.

D.D.A.G.                                       -   Dartford District Archaeological Group.
D.B.M.                                          -   Dartford Borough Museum
B. Philp, F.S.A.                              -   Details by request.
F.A.A.G.                                       -   Fawkham and Ash Archaeological Group
H.P.M.                                          -   Hall Place Museum, Bexley.
K.A.S.                                           -   Kent Archaeological Society.
O.G.                                              -   Otford Group.
M.M.                                              -   Maidstone Museum.
K.A.R.                                            -  Kent Archaeological Review. 
A.C.                                               -   Archaeologia Cantiana.
S.G.                                               -  Springhead Group
E.M.S.                                           -   Malling Stores of the Kent Area Museum Service.
I.F.A.                                              -   Institute of Field Archaeology, London University,
P.M.                                               -   Plumstead Museum.
M.H.M. - L.                                     -   Manor House Museum, Lewisham.
UNIT                                               -   Southwark or London.
D.H.A.S,                                         -   Dartford Historical and Antiquarian Society.
E.M.                                               -   Erith Museum,
O.M.                                               -   Orpington Museum
O.D.A.S.                                         -   Orpington & District Archaeological Society
G.M.                                               -   Gravesham Museum
Note: There are no Romano-British ceramics from South East London, Surrey and Kent in the 
              Horniman Museum, Forest Hill

2.1   The Dartford Kent area
   1.  D8 - Bridge House
   2.  East Hill House
   3.  D12 - 32, Springvale
   4.  Dl6 - Lowfield Street Centre of DDAG
   5.  D18 - Trafalgar Road, Wilmington
   6.  D20 - Overy Street Carpark
   7.  D26 - Lowfield Street Centre, Phase Two
   8.  D29 - Woodmans Yard
   9.  D30 - Midland Bank
 10.  D35 - Tenters Hill Field
 11.  D37 - 61,Lowfield Street
 12.  D4l - East Hill
 13.  D43 - High Street ,rear of Boots
 14.  D46 -Town Centre,1986
 15.  D47 - Quadrant Site, Town'Centre,1986/7
 16.  Temple Hill, 14-2-60
 17.  Temple Hill, St. Vincents Home, 28-5-84
 18.  Temple Hill, 23-8-85
 19.  Burnham Road,1980
 20.  Marsh Street, 23-5-84
 21.  East Hill, 1965 Museum excavation
 22.  Long Reach -1980
 23.  Central Park - 1980
 24.  Overy Street - May-June 1975
 25.  Shepherds Lane - Dartford Borough Museum
 26.  Beadle Cars,1913 - Dartford Borough Museum
 27.  Dartford Area - Burton Collection - Dartford Borough Museum
 28.  C. three acre site at the junction of Lowfield Street and Spital Street,1973 - Report still due see
          "Archaeological Excavations in the Darent Valley "p.19 & 20, Brian and Edna Philp.

2.1.1  Map of the Darent Valley (copy from above (28) 1973 "booklet. Note that the map OMITS the River Cray.
2.1.2  Map of PGW find spots in Central Dartford.
2.1.3  For DDAG sites prefixed D1 and on see (DDAG,1986)

2.2   The Darent Valley Area
 29.  Darenth Villa - FAAG - "D2 " Fieldwalk collection "
 30.  Darenth Villa - 1894/95 - HPM, B.
 31.  Darenth - Bowens Pit - DBM
 32.  Darenth - School Field - DDAG
 33.  Darenth Philp, l973
 34.  Darenth Road - FAAG Sundry - the late Ted Conway
 35.  Farningham, Franks Hall-Meates - DBM
 36.  Farningham, Manor House Site - Meates - DBM
 37.  Farningham, Calfstock Lane - Philp,1973
 38.  Farningham, Olivers Cresent,1925 - DBM
 39.  Farningham, Olivers Cresent,1947/48 - Meates - DBM
 40.  Farningham, Eglantine Lane - Philp,1973
 41.  Eynsford, Lower Austin Lodge Farm,1931 - DBM
 42.  Lullingstone - Meates and KAS
 43.  Lullingstone Road,1972 - Walsh - DBM
 44.  Lullingstone, river bed - 1960 - Pvt. Coll.
 45.  Lullingstone, pipetrench, 1986 - Pvt. Coll.
 46.  Shoreham, Preston Farm,1947/48 - DBM
 47.  Otford No.1 Site,1920,s-DBM
 48.  Otford Cemetery - DBM
 49.  Otford, Twitton Field, Frog Farm - DBM & OG
 50.  Otford, Hale Field - 3/4/1929 - DBM
 51.  Otford, Progress Villa - Pearce,1927 & 1930 - DBM
 52.  Otford, Charne Site - Meates 1954 - DBM
 53.  Otford, 1927 - DBM
 54.  Otford, Frog Farm - DBM, OG and Pvt. coll.
 55.  Otford, Wickham Field, 1965 and on - OG
 56.  Otford Hospital, 1920's - DBM
 57.  Otford, Rye Lane - John Pyke
 58.  Kemsing, Springhead Site - Brett, 1949 - DBM
 59.  Polhill, Dunton Green - Philp,1973
 60.  Patch Grove - Ward Perkins,1939 - MM
 61.  Oldbury Hill Fort-Ward Perkins,1939 - MM
 62.  Oldbury Hill Fort-Ward Perkins, 1939 - MM
 63.  Oldbury Hill Fort - Hugh Thompson, 1980's excavation
 64.  Sevenoaks, Kippington Road - 1973 John Pyke
 65.  Ash Villa - "North Ash Villa " - DBM
 66.  Ash Villa One - (1965 re-excavated) - FAAG
 67.  Ash Villa Two - FAAG
 68.  Longfield, Viewpoint - FAAG
 69.  Longfield, White Hill, 1983 - FAAG
 70.  Longfield ,The Gallops, 1983 - FAAG
 71.  Longfield, Viewpoint 2, 1986 - FAAG
 72.  Ash, Knightscroft - FAAG
 73.  Fawkham, Eastwood Farm-Philp, 1963 - site museum
 74.  Fawkham, Eastwood Farm-Philp, 1973 - site museum
 75.  Fawkham Manor - Walsh - FAAG
 76.  Sutton -at-Hone, Ship Lane - Philp, 1973
 77.  Wrotham Hill, 1908 - DBM
 78.  Wrotham Road, Meopham - Philp in KAR
 79.  Plaxtol Villa, Allens Farm - Arch Cant. 2, 1859
 80.  Plaxtol, Sedgebrook Villa-KAS 1986/7
 81.  Horton Kirby, 1940's - DBM
 82.  Horton Kirby, 1986 via DBM - Pvt. coll.

2.3   Cliffe Peninsula, Medway Valley and EAST KENT.
 83.  Chalk - Allen Donation - DDAG
 84.  Higham Marsh, 1975 and on, - DDAG
 85.  Cliffe, 1977 - DDAG
 86.  Shorne, 1977 - DDAG
 87.  Shorne, 1980 - the late Ted Conway - DDAG
 88.  Rochester, "Coin mould site 2 ", 1960's - via Ted Connell of FAAG
 89.  Rochester, 1974/75
 90.  Snodland Villa
 91.  Brishing
 92.  Allington
 93.  East Farleigh -poss. of Mrs Joy Saynor
 94.  Ospringe - Parsons,1966 in KAR.

2.4   Gravesend / London Thames side area.
 95.  Gravesend - various - GM / EMS / Philp
 96.  Northfleet Villa, 1911 - DBM
 97.  Northfleet Villa Area, 1980's
 98.  Springhead, 1922 - DBM :
 99.  Springhead - the late Bill Penn
100. Springhead - the late Syd Harker
101. Springhead, One Tree Field,1984 fieldwalk - SG & DDAG
102. Springhead, "SHI "coll.-FAAG, donated to SG
103. Springhead,1986 "dumped" - DDAG, donated to SG
             NOTE: No.s 99 to 103 are in store with SG/EMS/IFA/Philp.
104.  Greenhithe, Stone Castle Quarry,1966-DBM
105.  Crayford, Maxim Road Villa - DBM & HPM
106.  Erith, C.H. Norris Pits - DBM
107.  Charlton Camp (Elliston erwood) - PM
108.  Bellingham (Dan Jones) - MHM - L
109.  Greenwich Park - PM - ( poss. Harvey Shelden dig as well)
110.  Southwark-details from Unit.
111.  Billingsgate Lorry Park Site - DDAG
112.  London-Details from Unit.

2.5 The Cray Valley West Kent and Surrey Border area.
113.  Joydens Wood, Colvin,1938 - DBM
114.  Joydens Wood,1939 DHAS - DBM
115.  Joydens Wood,1954 - Caiger/Tester - DBM, PM, HPM, EM.
116.  Footscray - PM
117.  St. Pauls Cray - PM
118.  Slade Green,1957 - DBM & HPM (Warning: Ignore Garrod,1986 in KAR, he used
               the EM store of Joydens Wood material by mistake).
119.  Orpington, Ramsden Farm - OM
120.  Orpington Villa, 1928 (Elliston-Erwood) - OM
121.  Orpington, Cray Avenue (Eldridge) - OM
122.  Orpington, May Avenue, 1974 - OM
123.  Orpington, Bellafield Road - OM
124.  Orpington, Fordcroft (Eldridge) - OM
125.  Orpington, Poverest Road (Eldridge) - OM
126.  Orpington, Fordcroft (Tester) - OM
127.  Orpington, Poverest Road (Palmer) - OM.
128.  Orpington, Allotments (Satterwaite) ODAS
129.  West Wickham, North Pole Lane - Philp,1973
130.  West Wickham, Fox Hill - Philp,1973
131.  West Wickham, Elm Farm - Philp, 1973
132.  Westerham, Pilgrims Way - Philp, 1973
133.  Downe, Higham's Hill - Philp, 1973
134.  Bromley, Oakley House - Philp, 1973
135.  Keston, Leafy Grove - Philp, 1973
136.  Keston, Warbank complex -Philp - various.
137.  Hayes, nr. Baston Manor - Philp, 1973
138.  Titsey, Tatsfield Road - Philp.1973
139.  Croydon, High Street P.H. site, 1984
140.  Titsey-Surrey Arch. Coll. XLIV,1936, 98, fig.3
141.  Limpsfield, Merle Common - Surrey Arch. Coll. XLII, 1934, 110, pl.23
142.  Cobham, Leigh Hill - Surrey Arch. Coll. XXII, 1909, 137-1 54.
143.  Ashtead Villa - P.P.S. IV 1938, 165, fig. 11.7

2.6   "Outliers"
144.  Cirencester - Parsons, 1966
145.  Shoeburyness - Parsons,1966
146.  South Shields - pers.comm.1987, from Paul Bidwell, Roman Fort Museum.



Plain body sherds
Bases - flat
Body sherds - incised acute lattice
Rims - plain - out-curved
Rims - black slip
Rims - plain rim Jars
Rims - Individual forms
Body sherds - non-standard decors
Body sherds - high on shoulder
Body sherds - high on shoulder jab
Body sherds - Jab - mid girth
Fig. 9 & 10 combined
(excludes waste & rubbers)

AD 65 - 225

AD 65 - 410

AD 140 - 225

1.1       Ward Perkins, J.B. (1939)       Excavations on Oldbury Hill, Ightham. Arch. Cant. L1, 1939.

1.1       Ward Perkins, J.B  (1944)       Excavations on the Iron Age Hill Fort of Oldbury, nr. Ightham, Kent.
                                                        - Report of the research committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London.

1.2.1    Palmer, S. (1984)                   Excavations of the Roman and Saxon Site at Orpington.
                                                        - London Borough of Bromley.

1.2.2    Green, C.M. (1984)                In - Excavations of the Roman and Saxon Site at Orpington.
                                                       - London Borough of Bromley.

1.2.2    Marsh, G. & Tyers, P (1976)  In - Southwark Excavations 1972-1974 - Volume Two, Joint Publication No.1
                                                       London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, Surrey Archaeological Soc.

1.2.2    Clewley, G. (1973)                In - Excavations in West Kent 1960 - 1970 
            in Philp, B. 1973                  - second Research Report in the Kent series.

1.3.1    Green, C.M. (1980)               In - Excavations at Billingsgate Buildings "Triangle", Lower Thames Street
            in Jones, D.M.                     - special Paper No. 4, London and Middlesex Archaeological Society.

1.3.2    Thompson, I.M. (1982)           Grog tempered Pottery of South Eastern England. BAR British Series 108.

1.4.1    Pollard, R.J.                          Ph.d Thesis - Reading University - Due to be published by the K.A.S. ?1988.

1.7.1    "Court Rolls of Ightham, 1624" (1937)   Listing in Arch. Cant, XLIX (P.78).

1.7.1    Swan, V.G. (1984)                The Pottery Kilns of Roman Britain. 
                                                      - Supplementary Series 5 Royal Commission on Historical Monuments.

1.7.1    Pearce, E. (1927)                  The Progress Roman Villa at Otford, - Arch. Cant. XLVI.

1.7.1    Pearce, E. (1930)                  The Progress Roman Villa at Otford. - Arch. Cant. XLIX

1.7.1    Mynott, E. (1971)                  The Progress Roman Villa at Otford. - Kent Archaeological Review No, 25

1.7.1    Progress Roman Villa Otford (1935)   Report of the Excavation Committee of the Sevenoaks Society.

1.7.1    Box, E.G. (1929)                   Roman Pot from Otford. - Arch. Cant. XLII 1929

1.7.1    Godwin, F. (1930)             Supplement to Mr Box's Report. - mentions Wickham Field and Hospital Field.
                                                     Arch. Cant. XLIII. (see also B. Pearce "Roman site at Otford" "Hard surface
                                                     below Pilgrims Way" by Twitton and (Frog Farm) 1927 - Arch. Cant. XXXIX
1 .7.1   Eldridge, A unpublished         Romano British sherds, 1930's onwards, various find spots Orpington area
                                                       - donated to Orpington Museum.

Fig. 3  Oxford Wares - see                The Roman Pottery Industry of the Oxford Region 
              Young, C.J. (1977)              - British Archaeological Reports 43

           Upchurch, Hoo, Higham Marsh and Cooling    Ph.d Thesis - London University - published 1973
             wares - see Monaghan, J. (1936)                     BAR British Series 173

            Samian Ware see                  The Roman Site at Billingsgate Lorry Park, London.  A catalogue of the
              de la Bedoyere G. (1986)       Samian and other finds. BAR British Series 154

            All other wares see                The Roman Quay at St. Magnus House, London. Excavations at Kew 
             Dyson, T. (Editor) (1986)       Fresh Wharf, "Lower Thames Street, London, 1974-78. - Special Paper 
                                                        No. 8 of The London and Middlesex Archaeological Society.

1.7.1     Ward Gordon, Dr.                  The Belgic Britons: Ken of Kent in B.C. 55.- Sevenoaks, privately printed.

1.7.1     Parsons, J. (1965)                 Patch Grove Pottery: A Snort Study. - Kent Archaeological Review No. 6.

1.7.2     Meates, G.W. (1954)             The Charne Site, Otford. - Arch. Cant.

Fig 5     For forms fabrics corpus as per Fig. 4       The Alice Holt/Farnham Roman Pottery Industry
            Alice Holt/Farnham ware - see                   - C.B.A. Research Report No. 50
            Lyne, Mab and Jefferies, R.S. (1979)

            On general guide - all wares     Pottery in Roman Britain. - Shire Archaeology
               see Swan, V.G. (1975)           

3.1        Meates, G.W. (1950)              The Lullingstone Roman Villa. Interim Reports 1950 and 1952.
                                                           Arch. Cant. LXIII (1950), Arch. Cant. LXV (1952)

3.1        Meates, G.W. (1979)              The Lullingstone Roman Villa. - Volume I. - The Site - K.A.S.

3.1        Meates, G.W. (July, 1987)       Volume II - The Finds - K.A.S. - per Dr. Alec Detsicas - Hon. Editor.

3.1        Caiger, J, and Tester, P.J.       Excavations on the Site of a Romano-British Settlement in 
                    (1954)                              Joydens Wood, nr. Bexley. - Arch. Cant. LXVIII

3.1.2      Birchall, A  (1965)                  The Aylesford-Swarling Culture: The Problem of the Belgae Reconsidered.
                                                           - Proceedings of the Pre-Historic Society, B1, Pages .241-367.

3.1.2      Cunliffe, B.W (l978a)              Iron Age Communities in Britain. Second Edition.

3.1.3      Pyke, J.                                Romano-British Site, Rye Lane, Otford. Kent Archaeological Review No 58

3.1.3      Detsicas, A.P. (1965)             An Iron Age and Romano-British Site at Stone Castle quarry, Greenhithe.
                                                          - Arch. Cant. LXXXI.

4.1        Young, A. (1966 May)             Romano-British Farmstead at Twitton nr Otford.
                                                          - Kent Archaeological Review No. 6

4.1        Young, A. (1966, Nov.)            A Second Century Roman Cemetery at Twitton nr. Otford.
                                                          - Kent Archaeological Review No. 6

7.1          Satterwaite, V. (1984)             Paper on Patch Grove Ware O.D.A.S. Newsletter. - Important microscopic
                                                          study on Orpington area sherds.

7.2       D.D.A.G. (1986)                      Rediscovering Dartford - D.D.A.G.

8.1       Pollard, R.J. (1982a)                In - Archaeology in Kent to AD 1500. - C.B.A. Research Report No. 48.

Fig.12  of Fig. 3 and Fig. 5 - for forms and fabrics.
8.2       B.B.2 Mimic - see                The Techniques and Sources of Romano-British Black Burnished Ware
             Farrar, R.A.H. (1975)            (B.B.1 - Dorset  B.B.2 - S.E. England) in current research in Romano British
                                                       Coarse Pottery - edited by Alec Detsicas C.B.A.. Research Report No.10

Fig.13   Breen C. St. J. and Lewis, P.J.   Unpublished - reference material stored at D.D.A.G. Dartford.
             Higham Marsh dump (1975)

             D.U.A.                               In house fabric code used in reports.

             11M                                  Marsh/Tyers form series - 1978 - Southwark (CF).

             1986 Code  J. Monaghan    Ph.d. Thesis - London (CF)

Fig. I      The reference to Charlton bead rim vessels the Ward Perkins 1 to caption is:

             EIliston-Erwood, F.C         The Earthworks at Charlton, London S.E, 
                 (1916)                               Journal British Archaeological Association XXII

                 (1923)                          Journal British Archaeological Association XXIX

 NOTE: Palmer, S, (1984) - critical reviews of this key Cray Valley site are in

              Adkins, L. and            Review of Palmers (1984). Excavation Report London Archaeologist Vol. 5 No 4
             Adkins, R.A. (1985) 

             Detsicas, A.P. (1985)        in Arch. Cant. 1966.

             Philp B. (1986)                  Kent Archaeological Review 1986, No. 8?

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