bishop of York, the Duke of Ireland, the Earl of Suffolk,
and Chief Justice Tresilian, in 1387,. that Richard
II. was the first of our kings who gave badges to those
who were connected with him.1 These badges, whether
a collar or in any other form, thus became a party symbol
; and the violent accession of the Lancastrian family
to the throne would naturally lead to the assumption of
their livery by all those who were, or who wished to be
reputed, friends to their cause. That these formed so
numerous a class as to become a nuisance, it is evident
from an Ordinance in Parliament, made so early as the
second year of Henry's reign, altogether abolishing all
liveries and signs, except that peers and bannerets were
allowed to use the livery of the King, " de la Coler,"
all times; while all other Knights and Esquires were
prohibited from doing so, except in the King's presence :2 thus showing that the use of the collar was not
at the earliest period confined to knights; but besides
dukes and other noblemen, their use was recognized by
esquires also. And we may presume that those who
were thus allowed to wear the king's livery were only
those, whatever their rank, who were of the retinue or
household of the king.
Thus, in the few monumental effigies that remain of
this period which are distinguished by this ornament,
there are scarcely any in which we are not able to trace
the connection of the wearer with the family or the
court of the House of Lancaster.
1. The first is in the reign of Richard II. The collar
appears upon the brass of Sir Thomas Burton, in Little
Castreton church, in Rutlandshire, dated in 1382,3 seventeen
years before the usurpation of Henry IV. This
knight, we find, received letters of protection on accompanying
the Duke of Lancaster to France in 1369, when
1 State Trials, vol. i. p. 106.
2 Rot. Parl. vol.
iii. p. 477.
3 Boutell's Mon. Brasses and Slabs, p. 55.